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Cavities, also known as tooth decay, are holes in the teeth that develop from the erosion of the hard outer layer of the tooth, the enamel. They are caused by the buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria, and the consumption of sugary snacks and poor oral hygiene. Cavities can occur on any tooth surface and are more common in children, but they can also affect adults. If left untreated, cavities can lead to pain, infection, and even tooth loss.


  • Achy or painful teeth, especially after sweet, hot, or cold meals and beverages
  • Visible pits or holes in the teeth
  • Causes
  • Plaque buildup
  • Eating lots of sugary snacks
  • Poor oral hygiene


  • Dental fillings
  • Root canal therapy
  • Tooth extraction
  • Fluoride treatments to reverse early stages of tooth decay
  • Frequent dental examinations and cleanings to find cavities


  • Early using fluoride toothpaste to brush your teeth at least twice a day
  • Flossing daily
  • Limiting sugary snacks and drinks
  • Eating nutritious meals
  • Regular dental checkups and cleanings
  • Using dental sealants to protect the chewing surfaces of the teeth
  • Using topical fluoride solutions to strengthen tooth enamel


  • Dental exam to check for soft areas on the teeth
  • Dental X-rays to show cavities before they are visible
  • Probing teeth with dental instruments to check for soft areas


  • Untreated cavities can lead to tooth abscesses and tooth loss
  • Advanced tooth decay can cause pain, infection, and tooth loss
  • Untreated cavities can spread to other parts of the mouth and body

How does cavities form?

Cavities form through a multi-step process:

  • Plaque accumulation: Bacteria in the mouth use sugars from food to create a sticky film called plaque that builds up on the teeth. If this plaque is not removed through brushing and flossing, the bacteria continue to produce acids as a byproduct.
  • Demineralization: The acids in the plaque start to erode and dissolve the hard, protective enamel layer of the teeth, a process called demineralization. This can lead to the formation of white spot lesions on the tooth surface.
  • Enamel decay: As demineralization continues, the acids create tiny openings or cavities in the enamel. These cavities become visible as brown spots and the decay becomes irreversible without professional dental treatment.
  • Progression of decay: If left untreated, the decay can continue to progress, eventually reaching the softer inner layers of the tooth (dentin and pulp). This can lead to pain, infection, and potentially tooth loss.

Factors that increase the risk of cavities include frequent snacking, sipping sugary or acidic drinks, poor oral hygiene, dry mouth, and certain medical conditions. Regular dental checkups and proper brushing and flossing are crucial for preventing cavities from forming and catching them early.

What does cavity look like?

Cavities can appear as dark spots, typically yellow, brown, or black in color, on the tooth surface. In the early stages, a cavity may resemble a slight discoloration or white spot on the tooth. As the cavity progresses, the hole or dark spot will become larger and more pronounced.

You may also be able to feel a hole or crack in the tooth with your tongue. Swollen, red, or bleeding gums around the affected tooth can also be a sign of a cavity. In more severe situations, the cavity may show up as a sizable, darkly discolored patch on the tooth.

It’s important to note that not all discolored spots on teeth are necessarily cavities – they could also be tooth stains that don’t require treatment. Only a dentist can properly diagnose a cavity through an examination and x-rays.

Cavity colors

A cavity’s color can vary depending on the stage of tooth decay and the bacteria involved. Here are the different colors a cavity can appear in:

  • Early Cavity: The first sign of a cavity can be a chalky white spot, which is often difficult to spot with the naked eye. This color indicates demineralization, where the tooth enamel is losing minerals and becoming weaker.
  • Yellow or Grey Cavity: As the cavity progresses, it can appear yellow or grey in color. This occurs when the enamel breaks down to the point where the dentin below shows through. Once a cavity reaches this stage, it cannot be repaired because dentin is softer than enamel and cannot grow back.
  • Brown and Black Cavity: If left untreated, the cavity can continue to grow and eventually appear brown or black in color. This is due to the bacteria and acids breaking down the enamel and dentin, creating a hole that can be filled with food particles and other debris.
  • Other Colors: In rare cases, the color of a cavity can be influenced by the food particles that get stuck in the cavity. For example, if the cavity is filled with orange or green food particles, it may appear orange or green in color.

Overall, the color of a cavity can range from white to black, depending on the stage of decay and the bacteria involved. Early detection and treatment are crucial to prevent the cavity from progressing and causing further damage.

Cavity stages

The stages of tooth decay are:

  • White Spots: This is the initial stage where white spots appear on the tooth enamel due to enamel demineralization. It is reversible if treated early.
  • Enamel Decay: At this stage, the enamel decay progresses and creates a cavity or hole in the tooth. It is not reversible, but the tooth can still be saved with proper treatment.
  • Dentin Decay: The decay breaks down the enamel and reaches the softer dentin layer. This stage is characterized by increased pain and sensitivity due to the dentin’s tubules being in contact with the tooth’s nerve. Although it cannot be reversed, the tooth might not require a root canal.
  • Pulp Decay: The decay reaches the pulp of the tooth, causing a toothache. This stage is characterized by a large cavity that can be painful and may require a root canal.
  • Abscess: The decay and infection have traveled through the pulp and out the end of the tooth, causing a painful abscess. This stage is life-threatening if left untreated and requires immediate dental attention.

Treatments for tooth decay vary depending on the stage of the disease, and it is imperative to take care of the problem as soon as possible to avoid more complications.


1: Are cavities contagious?  

Unlike the flu or a cold, cavities cannot spread by direct contact. However, the bacteria that cause cavities can be transmitted from one person to another through various means, such as sharing food and utensils, kissing, and poor oral hygiene practices. This transmission can increase the risk of developing cavities, especially in young children and infants.

2: Are cavities genetic?        

Yes, cavities can be genetic. Research suggests that genetics play a significant role in the development of cavities, with up to 65% of tooth decay attributed to genetic factors. Several genetic factors contribute to the susceptibility to cavities:

  • Enamel Strength: Genetic makeup determines the strength of tooth enamel, which affects the ability to absorb vital minerals like fluoride and calcium. Stronger enamel helps resist bacteria and plaque that cause cavities.
  • Saliva Composition: Saliva can either aid or hinder the bacteria that cause cavities. Genetic factors influence saliva composition, which affects its ability to metabolize vitamins and minerals.
  • Taste Ability: People with a stronger ability to taste are less likely to develop cavities due to their broader taste palate, which may lead them to consume fewer sweets.
  • Teeth Shape: The shape of teeth, influenced by genetics, can contribute to cavities. For example, teeth with deep grooves or misalignment can trap food and bacteria, increasing the risk of cavities.
  • Immune System: Genetic factors can affect the immune system’s ability to protect teeth from harmful bacteria, making some individuals more susceptible to cavities.

While genetics can contribute to the risk of cavities, it is essential to maintain good oral hygiene practices, such as regular brushing and flossing, and a balanced diet to prevent cavities from developing.

3: Can you reverse cavities?

Yes, it is possible to reverse tooth decay, but only to a certain extent. Early stages of tooth decay, known as demineralization, can be reversed through proper oral hygiene and diet. However, once a physical cavity (hole) forms, it is not possible to regrow the enamel and the cavity will continue to worsen unless treated by a dentist.

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